A story of two carmakers: GM and Toyota take completely different electrical roads in China By Reuters


© Reuters. FILE PHOTO: Man walks previous a Wuling Hong Guang MINI EV at a SAIC-GM-Wuling dealership in Beijing


By Norihiko Shirouzu

SHANGHAI (Reuters) – Toyota pioneered the world’s most profitable hybrid automobile however in relation to pure electrical automobiles it has some catching as much as do, particularly in China.

The Hong Guang Mini EV, a tiny, no-frills automobile made by a Normal Motors (NYSE:) three way partnership that prices underneath $5,000 is a smash hit on this planet’s greatest automobile market whereas Toyota has but to launch its personal small, low-cost electrical car in China.

Toyota, the world’s greatest carmaker, is about to unveil its answer on the Shanghai auto present on April 19: a brand new common platform for electrical automobiles (EVs) known as e-TNGA that may underpin an array of fashions from small runarounds to giant SUVs.

It can additionally show its idea electrical mid-sized sport-utility car (SUV), primarily based on the e-TNGA platform, which is about to be offered worldwide inside a few years, two folks acquainted with Toyota’s plans stated.

Toyota’s executives have lengthy known as for a small electrical runabout however the truth it’s going first with a mid-sized SUV is an indication of the challenges it nonetheless faces to provide small, low-cost EVs which can be additionally aggressive, snug and secure.

With strain rising on carmakers to slash emissions, Toyota is scrambling to provide EVs that may compete globally with the Mini EV, Tesla (NASDAQ:)’s high-end sedans, mid-range fashions from Volkswagen (DE:) and Renault (PA:) and smooth EVs from Chinese language startups like and Xpeng.

Whereas Toyota’s Prius hybrid grew to become a world bestseller, one in all its early efforts to develop a small EV, the eQ, was a flop.

After promoting about 100 eQs in 2012, Toyota ditched it resulting from issues concerning the limits of EVs, similar to their excessive value, quick vary and lengthy cost time.

The eQ, an electrical model of Toyota’s mini iQ, price 3.6 million yen ($33,000), roughly the worth of its mid-sized Camry.


One key difficulty in creating an reasonably priced, small EV is the necessity to use electrical powertrains which have but to realize parity with their gasoline counterparts, the folks acquainted with Toyota’s plans stated.

Cramming cumbersome batteries right into a tiny automobile is one other problem.

Many EVs have excessive flooring as a result of the batteries are stacked beneath, leaving automakers the selection of creating automobiles a lot greater to provide passengers ample room, or holding them decrease and sacrificing consolation, the sources stated.

Toyota does not wish to compromise on high quality, consolation or efficiency with its small EV, however it’s conscious it must develop experience in slashing engineering prices to ship such a car with a value nicely underneath $20,000.

That experience is exactly what GM leveraged to make the Mini EV, which might price as little as 28,800 yuan ($4,410).

Its three way partnership, SAIC-GM-Wuling (SGMW), is the largest producer in China of no-frills industrial vans that begin at about 30,000 yuan and it tapped that cost-control know-how.

“Wuling mainly has merely needed to change gasoline engines in these industrial vans with easy electrical powertrains,” stated Yale Zhang, head of consultancy Automotive Foresight.

He expects gross sales of the the Mini EV and its upscale Macaron model to hit 500,000 this 12 months.

Zhou Xing, a SGMW vice chairman in command of Wuling and Baojun gross sales and advertising and marketing, stated it was set to roll out 4 small EVs by early 2022 underneath its manufacturers, taking the mannequin vary to 10 simply as extra rivals enter the market.


The Mini EV additionally cuts corners that will not be allowed in the US or Europe, underlining the problem Toyota faces in creating a viable rival that handles simply in a crowded metropolis and continues to be excessive in high quality and efficiency.

The Mini EV solely has one air bag, for instance, with none for passengers or on the edges to guard occupants if it rolls.

The automobile has an anti-lock braking system however no stability management expertise though its comparatively tall, stubby profile makes it liable to tipping over when cornering sharply at pace, two folks acquainted with its improvement instructed Reuters.

“To start with, the product meets all of the car security necessities of China. The Hong Guang Mini EV is mainly a commuting device, serving to folks go from level A to B in metropolis visitors. It is extremely unlikely for them to drive this automobile at excessive speeds,” stated SGMW’s Zhou.

The no-frills strategy definitely hasn’t dented its enchantment.

Launched in July, cost-conscious Chinese language prospects and younger, modern urbanites are snapping up about 100,000 Mini EVs 1 / 4, making it one of many prime EV sellers in China.

Some youthful drivers are shopping for it and different Wuling automobiles partly after a video of a Wuling van racing deftly on a twisty mountain street went viral. For a lot of, seeing a primary Chinese language van doing tough manoeuvres tickled their nationwide pleasure.

“I’m happy with what Chinese language-made automobiles like Wuling workhorse vans can obtain,” stated Huang Peixian, 26, a small enterprise proprietor within the metropolis of Shantou in Guangdong province.

“Once I noticed the Hong Guang Mini EV, I believed this may very well be a very good automobile for me,” she stated. “I am not simply interested in the automobile due to its low-cost value, it is actually enjoyable to drive.”

Many drivers personalise their Mini EV’s with a brand new paint job and smooth head and rear lights. Just a few are even customising their different automobiles, similar to Audis and BMWs, with Wuling stickers and badges.

Huang went all out, turning the inside of her Mini EV pink and splashing characters from Japanese cartoon sequence Chibi Maruko-chan on the white exterior.


Toyota’s electrical SUV would be the first automobile produced by its new zero emissions car design division in Japan, often called ZEV Manufacturing unit.

To get the low-cost know-how it wants, nevertheless, it has turned to Chinese language battery and automaker BYD by way of a joint analysis and improvement firm they began final 12 months.

The plan is to make use of BYD’s experience in constructing small EVs and a few key parts, together with batteries.

However there’s nonetheless a very good probability Toyota will use electrical powertrain expertise – a mixture of the motor, inverter and gears – known as e-Axle made by its affiliate BluE Nexus, in keeping with one of many folks acquainted with Toyota’s plans.

The Hong Guang Mini EV additionally performs an essential position for GM and SAIC because it generates green-car credit. Automakers in China have to make sufficient New Power Autos (NEV) to earn credit to offset their manufacturing of combustion engine automobiles.

The success of the Mini EV means GM and SAIC have the scope to promote credit to rivals or produce extra, larger, luxurious gasoline automobiles with out being penalised.

Automotive Foresight’s Zhang additionally stated the green-credit system means the Mini EV may be priced very competitively to the purpose it barely makes a revenue.

SGMW’s Zhou declined to say whether or not the Mini EV makes cash, or how a lot it earns from inexperienced credit.

“We’ve seen fairly a number of firms come to us and purchase credit from us. However we do not wish to disclose who they’re,” he stated.

The 2 sources acquainted with Toyota’s plans stated it was not planning to lose cash on the retail value of its small EV or leverage inexperienced credit to make it extra aggressive.

An organization spokesman declined to touch upon whether or not Toyota had sufficient Chinese language NEV credit, or if it might take into account promoting them as an integral a part of its technique.

($1 = 108.9200 yen)

($1 = 6.5280 renminbi)

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